瞭解崇洋 – 醜化中韓的日本漫畫,用19世紀歐化作指標來階級化整個東亞。

02/27/2011 § 2 則迴響

今天無意之間翻到了存在我電腦裡已久的一篇新聞。我認為這報導可以幫助東亞大眾多瞭解東亞現今的崇洋和種族歧視的現象。

 

紐約時報報導 – 呈現出日本漫畫風格 與 崇洋的密切關係

關於當時,紐約時報報導 (文章請參閱底部),日本在2005年底銷售最好的漫畫。漫畫內容醜化,日本在東亞市場內的兩個最大競爭對手,中國與韓國。雖然他們目的在於『醜化』中國與韓國,但波及到的包括北韓、以及所有講中文的群眾。同時,日本在漫畫中,把日本人自己畫的跟西北歐的白人一樣,以假白人的身份和價值觀來“醜化”中韓,間接地也波及到所有的東亞人,包括他們自己的人民。

漫畫,是日本對自己人民實施西化的強大軟實力之一。日本自明治維新之後的漫畫,間接可看出,日本希望自己就像漫畫中的日本人一樣。漫畫中的日本人,不僅畫得金髮碧眼、而且像白人,也更跨張化了一些白人和黃種人之間的特徵,讓他們看起來,比白人還『更』白人。

問題在於,日本至今經過了這麼多的「脫亞入歐」宣傳、影響、洗腦過程,一般日本人看鏡子,希望看到自己至少跟漫畫上和起來有點雷同,也就是說更『白人』一點,但日本至今還是無法達到。

這對於相信這一套價值觀的日本人來說,是個自信心上級大的不安全感。他必須不斷的跟不夠『白人』的其他東亞人做比較,來滿足他自己的自信心。

這報導同時也提到,日俄戰爭時的漫畫,日本把自己畫的比它白人的敵人還要在『更白人』。

 

醜化與否,由你而定

這漫畫(Hating the Korean Wave 和 Introduction to China)的用意,是醜化中韓,它的對象是日本大眾。拋開內容,究論漫畫把誰畫的白人點用意為美化,誰單眼皮小眼睛點用意為醜化,這或許在日本審美觀中是美化或醜化。但在中韓,如果中韓沒有跟著日本的審美觀走,對於中韓民眾可能也不會覺得這是外表上的醜化。換句話說,如果今天中韓,覺得鳳丹眼是美,那在角色的外觀上,中韓可能不會覺得是一種醜化。

 

報導頁面的廣告

諷刺的是,這篇報導的下面,有個紐約一帶 “亞洲"眼皮整形手術(也就是割雙眼皮)的廣告。看來歷史已經決定今天的定局。

但我們可以決定明天的定局。第一步,就是瞭解歷史。第二步,聯合影響他人、教育下一代。

需要翻譯的朋友,我將會儘快翻譯這篇報導。請留言,告訴我您有興趣看這報導的翻譯。

 

Ugly Images of Asian Rivals Become Best Sellers in Japan

By NORIMITSU ONISHI

TOKYO, Nov. 14 – A young Japanese woman in the comic book “Hating the Korean Wave" exclaims, “It’s not an exaggeration to say that Japan built the South Korea of today!" In another passage the book states that “there is nothing at all in Korean culture to be proud of."

In another comic book, “Introduction to China," which portrays the Chinese as a depraved people obsessed with cannibalism, a woman of Japanese origin says: “Take the China of today, its principles, thought, literature, art, science, institutions. There’s nothing attractive."

In "Hating the Korean Wave," a young Japanese woman says, "It's not an exaggeration to say that Japan built the South Korea of today!"

The Korea book’s cartoonist, who is working on a sequel, has turned down interview requests. The book centers on a Japanese teenager, Kaname, who attains a “correct" understanding of Korea. It begins with a chapter on how South Korea’s soccer team supposedly cheated to advance in the 2002 Word Cup; later chapters show how Kaname realizes that South Korea owes its current success to Japanese colonialism.

“It is Japan who made it possible for Koreans to join the ranks of major nations, not themselves," Mr. Nishio said of colonial Korea.

But the comic book, perhaps inadvertently, also betrays Japan’s conflicted identity, its longstanding feelings of superiority toward Asia and of inferiority toward the West. The Japanese characters in the book are drawn with big eyes, blond hair and Caucasian features; the Koreans are drawn with black hair, narrow eyes and very Asian features.

That peculiar aesthetic, so entrenched in pop culture that most Japanese are unaware of it, has its roots in the Meiji Restoration of the late 19th century, when Japanese leaders decided that the best way to stop Western imperialists from reaching here was to emulate them.

In 1885, Fukuzawa – who is revered to this day as the intellectual father of modern Japan and adorns the 10,000 yen bill (the rough equivalent of a $100 bill) – wrote “Leaving Asia," the essay that many scholars believe provided the intellectual underpinning of Japan’s subsequent invasion and colonization of Asian nations.

Fukuzawa bemoaned the fact that Japan’s neighbors were hopelessly backward.

Writing that “those with bad companions cannot avoid bad reputations," Fukuzawa said Japan should depart from Asia and “cast our lot with the civilized countries of the West." He wrote of Japan’s Asian neighbors, “We should deal with them exactly as the Westerners do."

As those sentiments took root, the Japanese began acquiring Caucasian features in popular drawing. The biggest change occurred during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905, when drawings of the war showed Japanese standing taller than Russians, with straight noses and other features that made them look more European than their European enemies.

“The Japanese had to look more handsome than the enemy," said Mr. Nagayama.

Many of the same influences are at work in the other new comic book, “An Introduction to China," which depicts the Chinese as obsessed with cannibalism and prostitution, and has sold 180,000 copies.

The book describes China as the “world’s prostitution superpower" and says, without offering evidence, that prostitution accounts for 10 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. It describes China as a source of disease and depicts Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi saying, “I hear that most of the epidemics that broke out in Japan on a large scale are from China."

The book waves away Japan’s worst wartime atrocities in China. It dismisses the Rape of Nanjing, in which historians say 100,000 to 300,000 Chinese were killed by Japanese soldiers in 1937-38, as a fabrication of the Chinese government devised to spread anti-Japanese sentiment.

The book also says the Japanese Imperial Army’s Unit 731 – which researched biological warfare and conducted vivisections, amputations and other experiments on thousands of Chinese and other prisoners – was actually formed to defend Japanese soldiers against the Chinese.

“The only attractive thing that China has to offer is Chinese food," said Ko Bunyu, a Taiwan-born writer who provided the script for the comic book. Mr. Ko, 66, has written more than 50 books on China, some on cannibalism and others arguing that Japanese were the real victims of their wartime atrocities in China. The book’s main author and cartoonist, a Japanese named George Akiyama, declined to be interviewed.

Like many in Taiwan who are virulently anti-China, Mr. Ko is fiercely pro-Japanese and has lived here for four decades. A longtime favorite of the Japanese right, Mr. Ko said anti-Japan demonstrations in China early this year had earned him a wider audience. Sales of his books surged this year, to one million.

“I have to thank China, really," Mr. Ko said. “But I’m disappointed that the sales of my books could have been more than one or two million if they had continued the demonstrations."

Correction: Nov. 22, 2005, Tuesday:
Because of an editing error, a front-page article on Saturday about the popularity of comic books in Japan that unfavorably portray Chinese and Koreans omitted the full name and background of a person who was quoted as saying that Japanese artists portrayed Russians in similarly unfavorable ways during the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese war. He is Yasuo Nagayama, a Japanese author who has written on popular culture during that war.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/19/international/asia/19comics.html?pagewanted=2

Published: November 19, 2005


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