瞭解崇洋 – 醜化中韓的日本漫畫，用19世紀歐化作指標來階級化整個東亞。
02/27/2011 § 2 則迴響
紐約時報報導 – 呈現出日本漫畫風格 與 崇洋的密切關係
這漫畫(Hating the Korean Wave 和 Introduction to China)的用意，是醜化中韓，它的對象是日本大眾。拋開內容，究論漫畫把誰畫的白人點用意為美化，誰單眼皮小眼睛點用意為醜化，這或許在日本審美觀中是美化或醜化。但在中韓，如果中韓沒有跟著日本的審美觀走，對於中韓民眾可能也不會覺得這是外表上的醜化。換句話說，如果今天中韓，覺得鳳丹眼是美，那在角色的外觀上，中韓可能不會覺得是一種醜化。
Ugly Images of Asian Rivals Become Best Sellers in Japan
TOKYO, Nov. 14 – A young Japanese woman in the comic book “Hating the Korean Wave" exclaims, “It’s not an exaggeration to say that Japan built the South Korea of today!" In another passage the book states that “there is nothing at all in Korean culture to be proud of."
In another comic book, “Introduction to China," which portrays the Chinese as a depraved people obsessed with cannibalism, a woman of Japanese origin says: “Take the China of today, its principles, thought, literature, art, science, institutions. There’s nothing attractive."
The Korea book’s cartoonist, who is working on a sequel, has turned down interview requests. The book centers on a Japanese teenager, Kaname, who attains a “correct" understanding of Korea. It begins with a chapter on how South Korea’s soccer team supposedly cheated to advance in the 2002 Word Cup; later chapters show how Kaname realizes that South Korea owes its current success to Japanese colonialism.
“It is Japan who made it possible for Koreans to join the ranks of major nations, not themselves," Mr. Nishio said of colonial Korea.
But the comic book, perhaps inadvertently, also betrays Japan’s conflicted identity, its longstanding feelings of superiority toward Asia and of inferiority toward the West. The Japanese characters in the book are drawn with big eyes, blond hair and Caucasian features; the Koreans are drawn with black hair, narrow eyes and very Asian features.
That peculiar aesthetic, so entrenched in pop culture that most Japanese are unaware of it, has its roots in the Meiji Restoration of the late 19th century, when Japanese leaders decided that the best way to stop Western imperialists from reaching here was to emulate them.
In 1885, Fukuzawa – who is revered to this day as the intellectual father of modern Japan and adorns the 10,000 yen bill (the rough equivalent of a $100 bill) – wrote “Leaving Asia," the essay that many scholars believe provided the intellectual underpinning of Japan’s subsequent invasion and colonization of Asian nations.
Fukuzawa bemoaned the fact that Japan’s neighbors were hopelessly backward.
Writing that “those with bad companions cannot avoid bad reputations," Fukuzawa said Japan should depart from Asia and “cast our lot with the civilized countries of the West." He wrote of Japan’s Asian neighbors, “We should deal with them exactly as the Westerners do."
As those sentiments took root, the Japanese began acquiring Caucasian features in popular drawing. The biggest change occurred during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 to 1905, when drawings of the war showed Japanese standing taller than Russians, with straight noses and other features that made them look more European than their European enemies.
“The Japanese had to look more handsome than the enemy," said Mr. Nagayama.
Many of the same influences are at work in the other new comic book, “An Introduction to China," which depicts the Chinese as obsessed with cannibalism and prostitution, and has sold 180,000 copies.
The book describes China as the “world’s prostitution superpower" and says, without offering evidence, that prostitution accounts for 10 percent of the country’s gross domestic product. It describes China as a source of disease and depicts Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi saying, “I hear that most of the epidemics that broke out in Japan on a large scale are from China."
The book waves away Japan’s worst wartime atrocities in China. It dismisses the Rape of Nanjing, in which historians say 100,000 to 300,000 Chinese were killed by Japanese soldiers in 1937-38, as a fabrication of the Chinese government devised to spread anti-Japanese sentiment.
The book also says the Japanese Imperial Army’s Unit 731 – which researched biological warfare and conducted vivisections, amputations and other experiments on thousands of Chinese and other prisoners – was actually formed to defend Japanese soldiers against the Chinese.
“The only attractive thing that China has to offer is Chinese food," said Ko Bunyu, a Taiwan-born writer who provided the script for the comic book. Mr. Ko, 66, has written more than 50 books on China, some on cannibalism and others arguing that Japanese were the real victims of their wartime atrocities in China. The book’s main author and cartoonist, a Japanese named George Akiyama, declined to be interviewed.
Like many in Taiwan who are virulently anti-China, Mr. Ko is fiercely pro-Japanese and has lived here for four decades. A longtime favorite of the Japanese right, Mr. Ko said anti-Japan demonstrations in China early this year had earned him a wider audience. Sales of his books surged this year, to one million.
“I have to thank China, really," Mr. Ko said. “But I’m disappointed that the sales of my books could have been more than one or two million if they had continued the demonstrations."
Correction: Nov. 22, 2005, Tuesday:
Because of an editing error, a front-page article on Saturday about the popularity of comic books in Japan that unfavorably portray Chinese and Koreans omitted the full name and background of a person who was quoted as saying that Japanese artists portrayed Russians in similarly unfavorable ways during the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese war. He is Yasuo Nagayama, a Japanese author who has written on popular culture during that war.
Published: November 19, 2005
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